A stance can be understood as an evaluative position which a speaker takes during the course of an interaction. Bucholtz (2009:148) states that “at the level of direct indexicality linguistic forms most immediately index interactive stances”. For example, a speaker could say yes in order to directly index an interactive stance of agreement. Johnstone (2009:29) posits that “repeated patterns of stancetaking can come together as a style associated with a particular individual”, such as a political figure. However, repeated patterns of stance-taking can also come to be associated with larger social identity categories, such as social class and gender (Bucholtz and Hall 2005:594).
Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall. 2005. Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies 7(4-5): 585-614.
Bucholtz, Mary. 2009. From stance to style: Gender, interaction, and indexicality in Mexican immigrant youth slang. In Alexandra Jaffe (ed.) Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, 146-170. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnstone, Barbara. 2009. Stance, style, and the linguistic individual. In Alexandra Jaffe. (ed.) Stance: Sociolinguistic perspectives, 171-194. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.